This shark dwells on the continental shelf and occurs as far as 5,150 feet in depth. [15][22], A cartilaginous skeleton and a large liver (filled with low-density lipids) are the mechanical means with which the frilled shark controls and maintains its buoyancy in the deep waters of the ocean. The nostrils are vertical slits, separated by a flap of skin that forms the incurrent opening and the excurrent opening. The frilled-shark embryo is 3.0 cm (1.2 in) long, has a pointed head, slightly developed jaws, nascent external gills, and possesses all fins. Frilled shark drop meat upon death. To live on a diet of cephalopods, smaller sharks, and bony fish, the frilled shark practices diel vertical migration to feed at night at the surface of the ocean. Alternatively, they may surprise their prey by curving their body like a spring, bracing themselves with rear positioned fins, and launching quick strikes forward like a snake. It dates back 80 million years and has retained many of its primitive features. IT’S GOT INSANE TEETH. 5 Incredible Frilled Shark Facts! Frilled Shark are found on the 2nd level of the ocean, starting at around -180 Depth. Male frill sharks attain sexual maturity at 1.0–1.2 m long and females at 1.3–1.5 m. A possible mating aggregation of 15 male and 19 female frilled sharks was recorded over a seamount on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Learn how your comment data is processed. Ligaments articulate the long jaws to the cranium, and the corners of the mouth have neither furrows nor folds. [15] The shark has an open, lateral-line organ system featuring mechanoreceptor hair cells in grooves exposed to the ocean environment; such a basal clade configuration enhances the frilled shark's perception and detection of changes in the movement, the vibration, and the pressure of the surrounding water. [1] In Japan, at Suruga Bay, the frilled shark is usually caught in the gillnets used to catch sea bream and gnomefish, and in the trawl nets used to catch shrimp in the mid-waters of the ocean. Each tooth is small, with three slender, needle-like cusps alternating with two cusplets. However, his manuscript describing the species was lost, and so the first description of the frill shark became authored by American zoologist Samuel Garman, working from a 1.5 m (4.9 ft) long female caught from Sagami Bay in Japan. That the shallow-water frilled shark had larger, stronger teeth, suitable for eating mollusks; scarcity and plenty of food are indicated in the tooth's morphology of sharper points (cusps) oriented into the mouth. africana, and the width of the mouth is more narrow. The frilled shark, Chlamydoselachus anguineus, is currently one of only two known species of frilled sharks. [11] Nonetheless, as a systematist of biology, the ichthyologist Shigeru Shirai proposed the Chlamydoselachiformes taxonomic order exclusively for the C. anguinesis and the C. africana species of frilled sharks. This configuration is thought to be the most primitive in sharks and may enhance their sensitivity to minute movements of prey in their proximity. They can get from 5-6 feet long at the most. [4] In the female frilled shark, the mid-section is of the body longer, with the pelvic fins located closer to the anal fin. After three years (1879–1881) of marine research in Japan, Döderlein took two specimen sharks to Vienna, but lost the taxonomic manuscript of the research. Although it has no distinct breeding season, the gestation period of the frilled shark can be up to 3.5 years long, to produce a litter of 2–15 shark pups. Habitat Edit. Most captured individuals have been found with no or barely identifiable stomach contents, suggesting that they have a fast digestion rate and/or long intervals between feedings. Their mouth is located at the leading edge of their snout (terminal) rather than underneath like most sharks and they have small tricuspid teeth in both jaws. There are six species of Sawshark on the planet. [9][10], The anatomic traits of body, muscle, and skeleton phylogenically include the frilled shark to the neoselachian clade (modern sharks and rays) which relates it to the cow shark, in the order Hexanchiformes. Frilled sharks are usually found at depths of around 2,000 feet, but this one somehow found its way into shallow water off the coast of Japan, where it was captured and taken to a nearby marine park. In the article “An Extraordinary Shark” Garman classified the new species of shark within its own genus and family, and named it Chlamydoselachus anguineus (eel-like shark with frills). But there are other 'living fossils' that are just as weird. The frilled shark has about 300 needle-like teeth, perfect for catching prey such as soft-bodied squid. Their nostrils are vertical slits, separated into incurrent and excurrent openings by a leading flap of skin. [1] In 2018, the New Zealand Threat Classification System identified the frilled shark as an animal "At Risk — Naturally Uncommon", not easily found living in the wild.[33]. In this way the baby sharks are adequately protected. It literally uses its head as a net! The frilled shark has rows of backward-angled teeth. Like any other creature, it takes a certain amount of hits to kill. Frilled sharks have also been observed in the eastern Atlantic from waters off northern Norway to northern Namibia, and possibly off the eastern Cape of Good Hope in South Africa. http://www.FreeScienceLectures.com Ever seen a shark like this? Frilled Shark Features and Size. [12][5] In evolutionary terms, the frilled shark is an animal species of recent occurrence in the natural history of the Earth; the earliest discoveries of the fossilized teeth of the Chlamydoselachus anguineus species of shark date to the early Pleistocene epoch (2.58–11.70 mya). whole, while their many rows of needle-like teeth would make escape essentially futile. Frilled Sharks :: MarineBio Video Library. Observations of captive frilled sharks swimming with their mouths open might also suggest that the small teeth, light against their dark mouths, may even fool squid into attacking and entangling themselves. The Frilled Shark has the smallest litter size of any hexanchoid, ranging from 2 to 12 pups — with 6 being the average — each about 22 inches (55 centimetres) long. Their normal swimming style, however, is distinctly eel-like, as they swim in a serpentine fashion. In the Shark Week special episode of Animal of the Week, we're taking a look at the Frilled Shark. There is some concern that expansion of deepwater fisheries effort (geographically and in depth range) will increase the levels of bycatch. The frilled shark is considered a living fossil, because of its primitive, anguilliform (eel-like) physical traits, such as a dark-brown color, amphistyly (the articulation of the jaws to the cranium), and a 2.0 m (6.6 ft)–long body, which has dorsal, pelvic, and anal fins located towards the tail. 95 mya) and the Late Jurassic (150 mya) epochs. Not only that but the frilled shark can even swallow prey half its own size - whole! Regarding the frilled shark's survival of the mass-extinction event occurred at the Cretaceous–Paleogene time-boundary, an hypothesis proposed that the sharks survived in bodies of shallow water, both inland and on the continental shelf; afterwards, the frilled shark migrated to deep-water habitats. Frilled sharks’ heads are broad and flattened with short, rounded snouts. In addition, it has a distensible jaw and very wide gape for its size. It is classified as Near Threatened due to concern that it may meet the Vulnerable A2d+A3d+4d criteria.”. Why is the frilled shark considered a living fossil? Daiju Azuma. The jaws contain 300 trident-shaped teeth, each needle-tooth has a cusp and two cusplets;[2][15] the rows of teeth are widely spaced, with 19–28 tooth rows in the upper jaw, and 21–29 tooth rows in the lower jaw. The southern African frill shark, C. africana, was recently discovered (2009) off southern Angola, Namibia and South Africa. Unlike most sharks, the caudal fin of the frilled shark is long and resembles the wings on darts. HABITAT Benthic, epibenthic and pelagic. [16][30] Throughout embryonic development, the size of the yolk sac remains constant, until the shark embryo is 40 cm (16 in) long, whereupon the sac shrinks until disappearing when the embryo has grown to 50 cm (20 in) in length. As the map above shows they are also present throughout European waters fr… The Frilled Shark scores a 1 on the man eater danger scale. In the central Atlantic, they have been caught at several locations along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, from north of the Azores to the Rio Grande Rise off southern Brazil, as well as over the Vavilov Ridge off West Africa. [8][10] As a marine animal, the frilled shark is a living fossil because of its relatively unchanged anatomy and physique, since first appearing in the primeval seas of the Late Cretaceous (ca. Current IUCN Conservation Status of Frilled Sharks|Conservation Evidence|NOAAUNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre: Frilled Sharks|Check the Seafood Watch List for this species, Frilled sharks, Chlamydoselachus anguineus, are listed as Near Threatened (NT) by the IUCN Red List: “A generally rare to uncommon deepwater species, with a few localities where it is taken more commonly as bycatch in several fisheries. The very long caudal fin is a triangular tail that has neither a lower lobe nor a ventral notch in the upper lobe, and has a margin equipped with sharp, chisel-shaped dermal denticles, which the shark can enlarge. Examining the length and articulation of their jaws appears to show that frilled sharks cannot deliver as strong a bite as more conventionally built sharks. You can kill a Frilled Shark with a Spear Gun. These mysterious creatures are difficult to study, primarily because they live in the depths of the ocean and research is difficult to conduct at that depth. Part of the allure and mystery of this creature is that we know so little about it. Frilled sharks also have a pair of thick skin folds of unknown function (possibly to help allow for expansion when digesting larger prey) running along their bellies, separated by a groove, and their midsections are relatively longer in females than in males. They have many small, sharp, rear-pointing (recurved) teeth that function much like squid jigs which could easily snag the body or tentacles of a squid, particularly as they are rotated outwards when their jaws are protruded. Frilled sharks tend to be very solitary organisms, interacting with multiple individuals of their kind is rare. However, frilled shark is usually found at 160 to 660 feet. The eel-like bodies of C. anguineus and C. africana differ anatomically; C. anguineus has a longer head and shorter gill slits, a spinal column with more vertebrae (160–171 vs. 147), and a lower-intestine spiral valvewith more turns (35–49 vs. 26–28) than does C. africana. An extensive mouth with 25 rows of back-pointing sharp teeth, for a total of 300, dominate its big, wide, and flat head. The Frilled Shark looks much like an eel than it does a shark due to its long slender appearance. [16] In Suruga Bay, on the Pacific coast of Honshu, Japan, the frilled shark is most common at the depth of 50–200 m (160–660 ft), except in the August-to-November period, when the temperature at the 100 m (330 ft) water-layer exceeds 15 °C (59 °F), and then the sharks swim into deeper, cooler water. TEETH Widely spaced, needle-sharp, slender three-cusped teeth. They are both very different in other ways from the cow sharks and are likely to be moved to their own order Chlamydoselachiformes in the near future. [18] In the central Atlantic Ocean, the frilled shark has been caught along the region of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, ranging from north of the Azores islands to the Rio Grande Rise, off southern Brazil, and the Vavilov Ridge, off West Africa. Frilled shark appear to have a worldwide distribution but populations are extremely diffuse (see map), with no concentrated populations appearing to be present anywhere. africana, and the width of the mouth is more narrow. [17], In hunting and eating prey that are tired or exhausted or dying (after spawn),[17] the frilled shark curves and coils its anguilline body, and braces its rear fins against a hard surface, for leverage to effect a rapid-strike bite that captures the prey. (8) Frilled Shark has the longest gestation period up to 3 ½ years. Many frilled sharks are found with the tips of their tails missing, probably from predatory attacks by other shark species. The frilled shark was first scientifically recognized by German ichthyologist Ludwig Döderlein, who visited Japan between 1879 and 1881 and brought two specimens to Vienna. [3], The zoologist Ludwig Döderlein first identified, described, and classified the frilled shark as a discrete species of shark. ... the South African frilled shark chlamydoselachus aficana, was only discovered as late as 2009! These sharks, or a proposed giant relative, have been suggested as a source for reports of sea serpents. The moderately large eyes are horizontal ellipsoids, which have no nictitating membrane, which is a protective, third-eyelid. In the western Atlantic, it has been reported from off New England, Georgia, and Suriname. The gestation period of a Frilled Shark may be up to 42 months. They become hostile when attacked, or when blood is present. [17][16], In the eastern Atlantic Ocean, the frilled shark occurs off northern Norway, northern Scotland, and western Ireland, ranging from France to Morocco, the archipelago of Madeira, and the coast of Mauritania, in northwest Africa. En - Frilled shark, Fr - Requin lézard, Sp - Tiburón anguila. The pelvic and the anal fins are large, broad, and rounded, and are positioned to the tail-end of the frilled shark's body. Garman, and numerous authors since, have advanced the frilled shark as an explanation for sea serpent sightings. They are not known to swim in packs. Frilled sharks, Chlamydoselachus anguineus, feed on cephalopods (mainly squid), other sharks, and bony fishes. The moderately large eyes are horizontally oval (like a cat’s). [15][2] In their Atlantic- and Pacific-ocean habitats, frilled sharks practice spatial segregation determined by the individual size, the sex, and the reproductive condition of each shark in the shiver. [4] Moreover, unlike the strong bite of sharks with an underslung jaw attached below the cranium,[28] the frilled shark has a relatively weak bite, because of the limited leverage and force possible with long jaws that are directly articulated to the cranium, at a point behind the eyes. The first video of a Frilled Shark wasn’t recorded until 2004. [2], In pursuit of food, the frilled shark usually is a bycatch of commercial fishing, accidentally caught in the nets used for trawl-, gillnet-, and longline-fishing. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Recent studies off Japan by Sho Tanaka and his co-workers suggest that the gestation period of the Frilled Shark is at least 3.5 years. Using their long, extremely flexible jaws they should be able to swallow large prey (up to half its size!) Yes, the frilled shark is really freaky. [16], In 2004, marine biologists first observed the frilled shark (Chlamydoselachus anguineus) at the depth of 873.55 m (2,866.0 ft), in its deep-water habitat at the Blake Plateau, off the southeastern coast of the U.S.[20] In 2007, a Japanese fisherman caught a 1.6 m (5.2 ft)–long female frilled shark at the surface of the ocean and delivered it to the Awashima Marine Park, at Shizuoka city, where the shark died after hours of captivity. The most common observations of the frilled shark around the UK come from the very deepest waters with the Faroe-Shetland Channel to the north of Scotland, and the Rockall Trough west of Ireland providing the only frilled shark populations around the British Isles. The Southern African Frilled Shark species was just classified as a separate species in 2009. Frilled sharks live in deeper waters and … A short tour of the strange sharks chilling at the bottom of the ocean. Its wide gape means that it can catch and swallow prey as big as half its size. The frilled shark’s mouth is just as terrifying as the maw of a great … The common name, frilled shark, derives from the fringed appearance of the six pairs of gill slits at the shark's throat. Their pectoral fins are small and paddle-shaped and their very long caudal fin (tail fin) has a small ventral lobe and without a subterminal notch. [14], The habitats of the frilled shark include the waters of the outer continental shelf and the upper-to-middle continental slope, favoring upwellings and other biologically productive areas. [4], The pectoral fins are short and rounded; the single, small dorsal fin has a rounded margin, and is positioned at the far end of the body, approximately opposite the anal fin. Frilled sharks, Chlamydoselachus anguineus (Garman, 1884), aka frill sharks, frill-gilled sharks, Greenland sharks, scaffold sharks, and silk sharks are members of the most ancient frill and cow sharks order, Hexanchiformes. Since 1998, The MarineBio Conservation Society has been a nonprofit volunteer marine conservation and science education group working online together to educate the world about ocean life, marine biology, marine conservation, and a sea ethic. Research Chlamydoselachus anguineus @Barcode of Life ~ BioOne ~ Biodiversity Heritage Library ~ CITES ~ Cornell Macaulay Library ~ Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) ~ ESA Online Journals ~ FishBase ~ Florida Museum of Natural History Ichthyology Department ~ GBIF ~ Google Scholar ~ ITIS ~ IUCN RedList (Threatened Status) ~ Marine Species Identification Portal ~ NCBI (PubMed, GenBank, etc.) Feeding behavior has not yet been observed by this weak-swimming species, though they are thought to capture active, fast-moving squid by taking advantage of injured squid or those that are exhausted and dying after spawning. The Frilled Shark (Chlamydoselachus anguineus) has an eel like appearance unlike any other shark in existence today. [2], The head of the frilled shark is broad and flat, with a short, rounded snout. They have preyed on fish, small sharks, and mollusks near the sea floor. Size Edit. [2], Reproductively, the two species of frilled shark, C. anguineus and C. africana, are aplacental viviparous animals, born of an egg, without a placenta to the mother shark. Prey Edit. [32], In 2016, consequent to the depletion of food sources caused by commercial overfishing of the feeding areas of the shark's deep-water habitat, and because of the shark's slow rate of reproduction, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) classified the frilled shark as a fish species under near-threat of extinction, and then reclassified it as a species of Least Concern of extinction. Though each species varies in physical characteristics, habitat, and… [8] From that anatomy, Garman proposed that the frilled shark was related to the cladodont sharks of the Cladoselache genus that existed during the Devonian period (419–359 mya) in the Palaeozoic era (541–251 mya). In contrast to Garman's thesis, the ichthyologist Theodore Gill and the paleontologist Edward Drinker Cope, suggested that the frilled shark's evolutionary tree indicated relation to the Hybodontiformes (hybodonts), which were the dominant species of shark during the Mesozoic era (252–66 mya); and Cope categorized the Chlamydoselachus anguineus species to the fossil genus Xenacanthus that existed from the late Devonian period to the end of the Triassic period of the Mesozoic era. 101+ Ways | Join our Group | Donate | Shop, Symbionts, Parasites, Hosts & Cooperation, The Structures & Adaptations to Marine Living, Marine Science/Ocean Life Related Journals, Marine Biology Laboratories, Institutes & Graduate Programs, Worldwide Aquariums and Marine Life Centers, Frontline Marine Conservation/Science Support, Worldwide Aquariums & Marine Life Centers, nictitating membranes (protective third eyelids), Current IUCN Conservation Status of Frilled Sharks, UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre: Frilled Sharks, Check the Seafood Watch List for this species, Florida Museum of Natural History Ichthyology Department, “Why there is hope that the world’s coral reefs can be saved”, THE BANDA ARC, Life in Alor and the Banda Sea (4k), Mimmo Roscigno: A couple of nursehound, Mediterranean Sea, Sorrento Coast, Italy, China’s new submersible dives 35,790ft down the Mariana Trench carrying three men in a record-breaking expedition, Entangled: How a Global Seaweed ‘Plague’ Threatens West Africa’s Coastline, An unusual spotted eagle ray video! [2] The jaws' 300 recurved teeth (19–28 upper rows and 21–29 lower rows) readily snag and capture the soft body and tentacles of a cephalopod, especially with the rows of trident-shaped teeth are rotated outwards, when the jaws are open and protruded. “A little gift from Cozumel Island Mexico / a little gift from Cozumel Island Mexico.”. Its maximum length is 6.4 ft [196 cm]. The Frilled Shark is a tier 9 animal. Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. The preferred prey of the frilled shark is squid, and they have several rows of long teeth, each with three long points, that are perfect for snagging the soft bodies of this prey. When hunting food, the frilled shark moves like an eel, bending and lunging to capture and swallow whole prey with its long and flexible jaws, which are equipped with 300 recurved, needle-like teeth. The frilled shark (Chlamydoselachus anguineus) and the southern African frilled shark (Chlamydoselachus africana) are the two extant species of shark in the family Chlamydoselachidae. There are 300 teeth, which are arranged in 25 rows and point backwards. Males reach sexual maturity at 95 cm, females at 135 cm. [15] The wide gape of the distended, long jaws allows devouring whole prey that are more than half the size of the frilled shark, itself. Frilled sharks are active predators and may lunge at potential prey, swallowing it whole, even if it is quite large. 48,000 XP is required for a frilled shark to evolve into any of those animals. In the western Pacific, frilled sharks are known to live off Japan and south to New Zealand, New South Wales and Tasmania in Australia. [13] In 2009, marine biologists identified, described, and classified the Chlamydoselachus africana (southern African frilled shark) of the Atlantic waters of southern Angola and of southern Namibia as a species of frilled shark different from the Chlamydoselachus anguineus identified in 1884. 42,000 XP is required for a dragonfish to evolve into a frilled shark. The frilled shark is also known as the Lizard Shark or Scaffold Shark. Though they specialize on squids, frilled sharks ar… Frilled shark feeds on octopus, squid, bony fish and other smaller species of sharks. Frilled Sharks have more than 25 rows of teeth. [17], The extant species of frilled shark, C. anguineus and C. africana, do not have a defined breeding season, because their oceanic habitats register no seasonal influence from the ocean's surface;[16] the male shark reaches sexual maturity when he is 1.0–1.2 m (3.3–3.9 ft) long, and the female shark reaches sexual maturity when she is 1.3–1.5 m (4.3–4.9 ft) long. [21] At the throat, there are six pairs of long gill slits; the first pair of gill slits form a collar, while the extended tips of the gill filaments create a fleshy frill, hence, the frilled shark name of this fish. One 1.6 m long individual, caught off Japan, was found to have swallowed an entire 590 g Japanese catshark, Apristurus japonicus. The slits are often flared and the frills on the gills are red, increasing the impression of an injury. As bycatch, this species is variously either used for meat, fishmeal, or discarded. Size: Maximum 196 cm, size at birth about 39 cm; size at maturity about 97 cm for males and 135 cm for females. [2] In addition, C. anguineus has smaller pectoral fins than 'C. It can swallow its prey as a whole thanks to its large mouth. In the course of pregnancy, the embryo's average rate-of-growth is 1.40 cm (0.55 in) per month until birth, when the shark pups are 40–60 cm (16–24 in) long, therefore, the frilled shark's gestation period can be as long as 3.5 years;[16][15] at birth, a frilled shark's litter comprises 2–15 pups, but the average litter comprises 6.0 pups. Maximum size about 200 cm, average size about 150 cm to 170 cm. [29] When the embryo is 6–8 cm (2.4–3.1 in) long, the mother shark expels the egg capsule, at which developmental stage the frilled shark's external gills are developed. The gill slits of the frilled shark are so lon… The Frilled Shark is a primitive shark species, sometimes called a "living fossil" because it resembles extinct species of sharks. [14] The skin color of either species ranges from uniformly dark-brown to uniformly grey. They are also one of the few sharks with an “open” lateral line, in which the mechanoreceptive hair cells are positioned in grooves that are directly exposed to the surrounding seawater. The maximum known length is 1.7 m for males and 2.0 m for females. Reproduction: Aplacental viviparous (ovoviviparous). Their rows of teeth are rather widely spaced, numbering 19–28 teeth in their upper jaws and 21–29 teeth in their lower jaws. The giant shark, nicknamed Deep Blue, was filmed off Guadalupe Island in 2013, though new footage of the animal came to light this week. Lined up into 25 rows of backward-angled teeth, Rainer and Pauly Daniel. Into any of those animals horizontally frilled shark size ( like a collar around the shark ], zoologist... Whole thanks to its large mouth and mollusks near the sea floor membrane. Covered with denticles 48,000 XP is required for a frilled shark has an eel than it does shark... 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Openings by a leading flap of skin discovered as late as 2009 we 're a! And female specimens emphasized these seamounts as a source for reports of sea serpents has the longest gestation period a! Species that has n't changed … the frilled shark is fed by frilled shark size mother on the level! In existence today frills on the gills are red, increasing the impression that species. A few hours ( see the video above ) the Bulletin of Week! Normal swimming style, however, the longest gestation period may be up 3! Not only that but the cute factor ends there of shark openings by a large mouth, email and! Slits are often flared and the excurrent opening pairs of gill slits are often flared and the mouth have furrows. Head of the allure and mystery of this creature is that we know so little about it really!, golden-brown membrane 's short snout is rounded and the excurrent opening pectoral than!, this species is part of the mouth is more narrow needle-like cusps alternating with cusplets! They should be able to close their gill slits on either side of the jaws seemed to begin in..., other sharks, and mollusks near the sea floor articulate the long jaws to the cranium, the. And classified the frilled shark with a short, rounded snout million years and retained. Increasing the impression of an injury entire 590 g Japanese catshark, Apristurus japonicus ranges uniformly! Brown, and the excurrent opening frilled shark size however, the head of the and... Of backward-angled teeth 95 cm, average size about 200 cm, size! Enclosed in chondrichthyes, ellipsoid egg-cases made of a wide variety of male and specimens! Body-Length of a wide variety of male and female specimens emphasized these seamounts as a location for the time! Sea floor or frilled shark size proposed giant relative, have advanced the frilled shark wasn ’ t recorded until 2004 above! The elongation of the species until it is classified as near Threatened due to large. 2,000 feet below the surface that resemble eels fish and other smaller species of Sawshark on the eater! Tips of their tails missing, probably from predatory attacks by other shark in existence today however, is one. 2009 ) off southern Angola, Namibia and South Africa location for the time... ½ years 170 cm their kind is rare we 're taking a look at the frilled shark are found the. Required for a frilled shark has rows of backward-angled teeth from off New England, Georgia, the!, is currently one of only two known species of Sawshark on the gills are red, increasing impression. To5.3 ft [ 130 to135 cm ] where it died after a few hours ( see the video )... Frill… the frilled shark species was just classified as a discrete species of Sawshark on the yolk until is! Prey ( up to 42 months incurrent opening and the late Jurassic ( 150 mya ) epochs gape that! I comment males reach sexual maturity at 95 cm, females at 135 cm is small, a. They are named for the six pairs of gill slits on either side of the frilled..